On the Distribution of Reflexive Anaphors and Logophoric Anaphors in Balinese


  • I Nyoman Udayana Udayana University




reflexive pronoun, logophoricity, state of consciousness, passivization, phi-features


The central claim of this paper is that reflexive anaphors and logophoric anaphors in Balinese share the same forms. It is shown that Balinese possesses simple and complex reflexives. Only complex reflexives participate in the logophoric environment. Importantly it is claimed that the logophoric use of the reflexive anaphor occurs in a clausal complement of the verbs of communication and other verbs denoting a general state of consciousness. The logophor can appear in the subject or object position of the embedded clause while the reflexive use of the anaphor is only limited to occurring in a single clause and is restricted to occupying the object position, either the object of a verb or the object of a preposition.  The characteristic differences in the distribution between the two are reflected in a syntactic domain having to do with passivization in that logophoric constructions allow it while reflexive constructions completely ban it. In addition, logophoricity may characterize an operation where there is a mismatch in the agreement between the logophor and its targeted antecedent whereas in reflexivity there must be an agreement in the phi-features between the binder and the bindee.

Author Biography

I Nyoman Udayana, Udayana University

Department of English Language


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