The Efficacy of Computer-Mediated Feedback in Improving L2 Speaking: A Systematic Review


  • Wenrui Zhang The Chinese University of Hong Kong



computer-mediated feedback (CMF), L2 speaking, linguistic factors, contextual factors, individual factors


Recent trends in computer-mediated communication (CMC) have led to a proliferation of studies investigating the effect of computer-mediated feedback (CMF). The present systematic review aimed to explore the role of linguistic, contextual, and individual factors in mediating the impact of CMF on second language (L2) speaking performance. A literature search located 16 relevant empirical studies for the final analysis. Each study was coded for linguistic, contextual, and individual characteristics. First, CMF was theoretically conceptualized as an instructional input, a dialogic process, and an internal process based on theoretical underpinnings. Correspondingly, CMF was analyzed under the influence of 1) linguistic factors including feedback type, the linguistic focus of CMF, and the timing of CMF, 2) contextual factors including the feedback source and the task type, and 3) individual factors including individual differences and learners’ proficiency levels. The implication of the study was twofold. Theoretically, this study not only provided a multi-dimension view towards the effect of CMF in developing L2 oral proficiency but also shed new light on the interrelations between these identified factors. Pedagogically, teachers were encouraged to take advantage of CMC technologies to enhance the effectiveness of CMF as well as considering learners’ uniqueness. Suggestions for future research were also provided.

Author Biography

Wenrui Zhang, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Department of English


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