Archetypal Theme of Ambivalent Identity in Le Anne Howe’s Moccasins Don’t Have High Heels and The Red Wars
Keywords:ambivalence, archetypal criticism, initiation fiction, Le Anne Howe
The current study examines archetypal patterns and themes underlying contemporary Native American initiation fiction. Moccasins Don’t Have High Heels and The Red Wars, both written by Le Anne Howe, are informed by the conventions of initiation fiction. The portrayal of characters with uncertain identities and feelings of alienation and solitude is a recurring theme in both works which are approached from the viewpoint of archetypal criticism. The research claims, questions and aims are stated in the introduction, which also offers an overview of Native American literature, initiation fiction, and archetypal criticism. An archetypal reading of Howe’s stories is presented in the Discussion. Research findings and analysis outcomes are stated in the Conclusion.
Cordova, V. F. (2002). Bounded Space: The Four Directions. APA Newsletter. 2.1, 3 – 6.
Dobson, D. (2005). Archetypal Literary Theory in the Postmodern Era, Journal of Jungian Scholarly Studies, 1.1, 1 – 16.
Garry, J. & El-Shamy, M. H. (2005). Archetypes and Motifs in Folklore and Literature: A Handbook. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Hertzberg, B. H. (1981). The Search for an American Indian Identity: Modern Pan-Indian Movements, Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Press.
Howe L. A. (1991a). Moccasins Don’t Have High Heels. In American Indian Literature: An Anthology, Alan R. Velie (ed.), Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 361 – 366.
Howe L. A. (1991b).The Red War. In American Indian Literature: An Anthology, Alan R. Velie (ed.), Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 367 – 370.
Jojola, T. (2002). Toward a Cyclical Model of Indigenous History. APA Newsletter. 2.1, 6 – 9.
Marcus, M. (1960). What Is an Initiation Story? The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 19.2, 221-228.
Murray, K. J. (1985). What is Native American Literature? Canadian Journal of Native Studies, 2.1, 151-166.
Pérez, L. S. (2019). A Concise Overview of Native American Written Literature: Early Beginnings to 1968 International Journal of Languages, Literature and Linguistics, 5.3, 176 – 185.
Thamarana, S. (2015). Origin and Development of Bildungsroman Novel in English Literature. International Journal of English Language, Literature and Humanities, 3.6, 21-26.