Archetypal Theme of Ambivalent Identity in Le Anne Howe’s Moccasins Don’t Have High Heels and The Red Wars


  • Hussein H. Zeidanin Tafila Technical University



ambivalence, archetypal criticism, initiation fiction, Le Anne Howe


The current study examines archetypal patterns and themes underlying contemporary Native American initiation fiction. Moccasins Don’t Have High Heels and The Red Wars, both written by Le Anne Howe, are informed by the conventions of initiation fiction. The portrayal of characters with uncertain identities and feelings of alienation and solitude is a recurring theme in both works which are approached from the viewpoint of archetypal criticism. The research claims, questions and aims are stated in the introduction, which also offers an overview of Native American literature, initiation fiction, and archetypal criticism. An archetypal reading of Howe’s stories is presented in the Discussion. Research findings and analysis outcomes are stated in the Conclusion.

Author Biography

Hussein H. Zeidanin, Tafila Technical University

Department of English Language and Literature


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