Teaching Quality and Students' EFL Achievements in Ethiopia: Analysis From the Perspective of the Basic Dimensions of Teaching Quality
Keywords:EFL achievement, teaching quality, HLM, RIF, teaching quality dimensions
Teaching quality is important for students’ English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Achievements. The three basic dimensions of teaching quality (student support, classroom management, and cognitive activation) showed effectiveness in some subjects in developed countries, but there is very little investigation on its effectiveness in developing ones. Using hierarchical linear modeling and re-centered influence function regression, this study investigates the extent to which the three basic dimensions of teaching quality affect students’ EFL achievements and how much the effect varies across achievement distributions in the context of Ethiopia. Findings reveal that classroom management does not affect students’ EFL achievements and this is consistent across achievement distributions. However, cognitive activation positively affects students’ EFL learning achievements and the effect is consistent across the distribution of achievements. Similarly, student support affects students’ EFL achievements positively, but its effect is higher for high-achieving students. Implications of the findings were discussed.
Adler, I., Schwartz, L., Madjar, N., & Zion, M. (2018). Reading between the lines: The effect of contextual factors on student motivation throughout an open inquiry process. Science Education, 102(4), 820-855.
Anderson, N. J. (2002). The role of metacognition in L2 teaching and learning. In ERIC Digest. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED463659.pdf (accessed 8/8/2021).
Atlay, C., Tieben, N., Hillmert, S., & Fauth, B. (2019). Instructional quality and achievement inequality: How effective is teaching in closing the social achievement gap? Learning and Instruction, 63(2019), 1-10.
Blömeke, S.,Olsen, R.V., &Suhl, U.(2016). Relation of student achievement to the quality of their teachers and instructional quality. In T. Nilsen&J.-E. Gustafsson (Eds.), IEA research for education. Teacher quality, instructional quality and student outcomes: Relationships across countries, cohorts and time. Cham: Springe, 21–50.
Borgen, N. T. (2016). Fixed Effects in Unconditional Quantile Regression. The Stata Journal, 16(2), 403-415.
Cevallos, L. F., & Soto, S. T. (2020). EFL Classroom Management. MEXTESOL Journal, 44(2), 1-11.
Chakraborty, T., & Bakshi, S. K. (2016). English language premium: Evidence from a policy experiment in India. Economics of Education Review, 50, 1–16.
Chang, A. C. S., & Read, J. (2007). Support for foreign language listeners: Its effectiveness and limitations. RELC Journal: A Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 38(3) 375-394.
Dhrymes, P. J. (1970). Econometrics: Statistical foundations and applications. New York, Evanston and London: Harper & Row.
Elgun-gunduz, Z., Akcan, S., & Bayyurt, Y. (2012). Isolated form-focused instruction and integrated form-focused instruction in primary school English classrooms in Turkey. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 25, 157-171.
Federal Ministry of Education. (2015). Education Sector Development Programme V (ESDP V). Addis Ababa: Federal Ministry of Education Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
Firpo, S., Fortin, N. M., & Lemieux, T. (2007). Unconditional quantile regressions. NBER Technical Working Paper No. 339. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Geberew, T., Tigist, T., Pullen, D., & Swabey, D. (2018). English language achievement among Ethiopian public secondary school students: Associated factors. Educational Research and Reviews, 13(12), 503-510.
González, A., Fernández, M. V. C., & Paoloni, P. V. (2016). Hope and anxiety in physics class: Exploring their motivational antecedents and influence on metacognition and performance. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 54(5), 558–585.
Hatcher, L. (1994). A step-by-Step approach to using the SAS® system for factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.
Hochweber, J. & Vieluf, S. (2018). Gender differences in reading achievement and enjoyment of reading: The role of perceived teaching quality. The Journal of Educational Research, 111(3), 268-283.
Hofmann, D. A., & Gavin, M. B. (1998). Centering decisions in hierarchical linear models: Implications for research in organizations. Journal of Management, 24, 623–641.
Hox, J. J. (2010). Multilevel Analysis: Techniques and Applications (2nd ed., pp. 63-68). New York: Routledge.
Iraji, S.& Gholami, J. (2018). Effectiveness of Isolated vs. Integrated Form-Focused Instruction in Iranian EFL Classrooms. International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies, 6(3), 137-149.
Iwai, Y. (2011). Metacognitive awareness and strategy use in academic English reading among adult English as a Second Language (ESL) students. ProQuest, UMI Dissertation Publishing.
Jolliffe, I. T. (1990). Principal component analysis: A beginner's guide - I. Introduction and application. Weather, 45(10), 375-382.
Kaiser, H. F. (1960). The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20(1), 141-151.
Klieme, E., Schümer, G., & Knoll, S. (2001). Mathematikunterricht in der Sekundarstufe I: “Aufgabenkultur” und Unterrichtsgestaltung. In BMBF (Ed.), TIMSS—Impulse für Schule und Unterricht, Forschungsbefunde, Reforminitiativen, Praxisberichte und Video-Dokumente (pp. 43–58). Bonn: BMBF.
Konstantopoulos, S., Li, W., Miller, S., & van der Ploeg, A. (2019). Using Quantile Regression to Estimate Intervention Effects Beyond the Mean. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 79(5), 883-919.
Kuger, S. (2016). Curriculum and learning time in international school achievement studies. In S. Kuger, E. Klieme, N. Jude & D. Kaplan (Eds.), Assessing contexts of learning. Berlin: Springer, 395–422.
Kunter, M., Klusmann, U., Baumert, J., Richter, D., Voss, T., & Hachfeld, A. (2013). Professional competence of teachers: Effects on instructional quality and student development. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 805–820.
Leckie, G. (2013). Three-level multilevel models –Stata practical. LEMMA VLE Module, 11, 1–52.
Lotz, M. (2014). Kognitive Aktivierung im Leseunterricht der Grundschule. Eine Videostudie zur Gestaltung und Qualität von Leseübungen im ersten Schuljahr. Wiesbaden: Springer.
Martin, N., Yin, Z., & Baldwin, B. (1998). Construct validation of the attitudes and beliefs on classroom control inventory. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 33(2), 6–15.
Mehrdad, A. G., Ahghar, M. R., & Ahghar, M. (2012). The effect of teaching cognitive and metacognitive strategies on EFL students' reading comprehension across proficiency levels. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46(2012), 3757-3763 .
Muijs, D., Kyriakides, L., Van der Werf, G., Creemers, B., Timperley, H., & Earl, L. (2014). State of the art – Teacher effectiveness and professional learning. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 25(2), 231–256.
Osborne, J., Erduran, S., & Simon, S. (2004). Enhancing the quality of argumentation in school science. Journal of research in science teaching, 41(10), 994–1020.
Paccagnella, O. (2006). Centering or not centering in multilevel models? The role of the group mean and the assessment of group effects. Evaluation Review, 30(1),66–85.
Pozas, M., Letzel, V., & Schneider, C. (2020). Teachers and differentiated instruction: exploring differentiation practices to address student diversity. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 20(3), 217-230.
Praetorius, A.-K., Vieluf, S., Saß, S., Bernholt, A., & Klieme, E. (2016). The same in German as in English? Investigating the subject-specificity of teaching quality. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 19(1), 191–209.
Praetorius, A., Klieme, E., Herbert, B., & Pinger, P. (2018). Generic dimensions of teaching quality: the German framework of Three Basic Dimensions. ZDM Mathematics Education, 50, 407-426.
Sanfo, M. B. J. (2020). A Three-level Hierarchical Linear Model Analysis of the Effect of School Principals' Factors on Primary School Students' Learning Achievements in Burkina Faso. International Journal of Educational Research, 100 (2000), 1-11.
Sowell, H. K. (2013). Classroom Management Strategies: The Impact on Student Achievement. Ph.D. dissertation, Liberty University.
Talebi, S., Davod, S., & Khoshroo, A. (2015). Investigating the Effective Component of Classroom Management in Predicting Academic Achievement among English Language Students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 205(2015), 59-596.
Talebinejad, R. M., & Akhgar, F. (2015). The Impact of Teacher Scaffolding on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learner's Listening Comprehension Achievement. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(5), 1101-1105.
Tikly, L. (2011). Towards a Framework for Researching the Quality of Education in Low income Countries. Comparative Education, 47(1), 1-23.
Valiandes, S. (2015). Evaluating the impact of differentiated instruction on literacy and reading in mixed ability classrooms: quality and equity dimensions of education effectiveness. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 45 (2015) 17–26.
Wernke, S., Wagener, U., Anschuetz, A., & Moschner, B. (2011). Assessing cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies in school children: Construct validity and arising questions. The International Journal of Research and Review, 6 (2), 19-38.
Wilden, E., & Porsch, R. (2019). The impact of teaching quality and learning time on primary EFL learners’receptive proficiency-Preliminary findings from the TEPS study. AILA Review, 32(1), 160-177.
Wilden, E.,Porsch, R., & Schurig, M.(2020).An early start in primary EFL education and the role of teacher qualification and teaching quality. Language Teaching for Young Learners, 2(1) 28–51.
Woessmann, L. (2003). Schooling resources, educational institutions, and student performance: The international evidence. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 65(2), 117–170.