Figure-Ground Alignment Patterns in Indonesian


  • Made Sri Satyawati Udayana University
  • Ni Luh Putu Krisnawati Udayana Universit
  • Ketut Widya Purnawati Udayana University
  • Ketut Artawa Udayana University



causative pattern, figure object, ground object, locative pattern


This paper investigates the syntax and semantics of two verbal suffixes in Indonesian. The two verbal suffixes are the suffix –kan and -i. Many linguists have studied the verbal suffix -kan, whereas the verbal suffix –i got less attention. This paper discusses the suffix –kan in conjunction with the suffix –i. The suffix –kan marks a causative verb, and the suffix –i a locative verb. A causative verb has A FIGURE object, whereas a locative verb has a GROUND object. The proposed analysis employing causative and locative alignment patterns showed a more revealing result of the main functions of the suffix –kan and –i.

Author Biographies

Made Sri Satyawati, Udayana University

Faculty of Humanities

Ni Luh Putu Krisnawati, Udayana Universit

Faculty of Humanities

Ketut Widya Purnawati, Udayana University

Faculty of Humanities

Ketut Artawa, Udayana University

Faculty of Humanities


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