A Systematic Review on the Effectiveness of Metacognitive Strategies and Multimodal Tools in Blended Learning English Language Classroom
Keywords:blended learning, metacognition, multimodal tools, mixed-mode learning, hybrid Learning
Blended learning was considered to be an effective approach to language learning in various fields as it significantly increases the learner's autonomy, engagement, curiosity, and effective comprehension. In the past years, various experimental studies have been carried out to examine the positive outcome of blended learning among English language learners. Since 2000, various research studies have been carried out to analyze the strengths and limitations of the blended learning classroom. The purpose of the present study is to systematically review the research papers published on blended learning from the year 2010 to 2021. The study investigates the effectiveness of blended learning specifically in English language classrooms. Blended learning is highly reliant on the English language tools and strategies employed while teaching. Hence, the study analyses the various metacognitive strategies and English language-based multimodal tools used in the blended learning classroom. The study reviews the method, approach, and strategies used in the blended learning classroom. 25 quantitative studies were selected for the systematic review. The study uses “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses” and Cochrane guidelines of systematic review to analyze the selected studies. Blended learning seems to be effective among English language learners and it has significantly developed students’ attention, academic achievement, student learning involvement, students engagement, active learning, student interaction, learning process, language proficiency, English language skills, learning motivation, improves concentration and provides a new learning experience. Nevertheless, variables like English language skills, various multimodal tools, and metacognitive strategies can significantly impact the effectiveness of the blended learning approach.
Abdussalam, K. M. (2016). Technology Integration in Teaching Literature (Doctoral dissertation, University of Khartuom).
Akhtar, R., Hassan, H., Saidalvi, A., & Hussain, S. (2019). A systematic review of the challenges and solutions of ESL students’ academic writing. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, 8(5), 1169-1171.
Al Sobaihi, Mohammed (2020). "Reading and Listening in English Language Learning: A Critical Study of Cognition and Metacognition." International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature 9.2: 53-60.
Alam Khan, I. (2014). Effectiveness of blended learning for teaching of English: An exploratory study. Research Journal of Recent Sciences ISSN, 2277, 2502, 3(3), 78-85.
Alammary, A. (2019). Blended learning models for introductory programming courses: A systematic review. PloS one, 14(9), e0221765.
Alfaifi, M. J. (2021). A Suggested Model for Metacognitive Strategy Instruction in EFL Writing Classrooms. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 38(4), 323-329.
Al-Jarrah, et al., (2019). "The application of metacognition, cognitivism, and constructivism in teaching writing skills." European Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 3(4), 199-213.
Al-Qahtani, A. A. (2020). “Investigating Metacognitive Think-Aloud Strategy in Improving Saudi EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension and Attitudes”. English Language Teaching, 13(9), 50-62.
Al-Samarraie, H., & Saeed, N. (2018). A systematic review of cloud computing tools for collaborative learning: Opportunities and challenges to the blended-learning environment. Computers & Education, 124, 77-91.
Ammade, Salasiah, et al (2018). "Integrating technology in English language teaching: global experiences and lessons for Indonesia." International Journal of English Linguistics 8.6 (2018): 107-112.
Areta, Ourania, and Karel Van Isacker (2021). "Digital Tools as an Enabler for Educational and Training Processes: The Case Study of Refugee Class Assistance4 Teachers Project." Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute Proceedings. Vol. 74. No. 1, 9-11.
Astuti, D., Zulaeha, I., Su’udi, A., & Handayani, S. (2021) The Effectiveness of Metacognition Strategy Instruments for Writing in French at Level A2 with Blended Learning. International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology, 6(8), 560.
Atmacasoy, A., & Aksu, M. (2018). Blended learning at pre-service teacher education in Turkey: A systematic review. Education and Information Technologies, 23(6), 2399-2422.
Bangkom, K., & Sukavatee, P. (2021). Effects of Oracy Building Instruction via Blended-Learning Environment on Thai Students' Metacognitive Awareness and Oracy Skills. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 14(1), 240-293.
Batmaz Derer, N., Coskun, Y. (2021). “The Effect of Universal Design for Learning on Metacognitive Awareness and Self-Efficacy Beliefs in English”. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 13(1), 271-289.
Benton, P. (1999). “Unweaving the Rainbow: Poetry Teaching in the secondary school” Oxford Review of Education. 25(4): 521-531
Bester, G., & Brand, L. (2013). The effect of technology on learner attention and achievement in the classroom. South African Journal of Education, 33(2), 1-15.
Delialioglu, O. (2011). “Student Engagement in Blended Learning Environments with Lecture-Based and Problem-Based Instructional Approaches” Educational Technology & Society 15(3):310-322.
Djabbarova, Nozima (2021). "Teaching Listening Skills with Online Digital Tools." Mental Enlightenment Scientific-Methodological Journal 1: 30-39.
Dwaik, R., Jweiless, A., & Shrouf, S. (2016). Using Blended Learning to Enhance Student Learning in American Literature Courses. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 15(2), 126-137.
Elley, R. A. Z. (2015). Using the blended learning method in a literature classroom: a case study on teaching sonnets. In Proceeding of the 2nd International Conference on Management and Muamalah 2015 (2nd ICoMM) 16th–17th November 2015, e-ISBN: 978-967-0850-25 (Vol. 2).
Fakhir, Z. (2015). The impact of blended learning on the achievement of the English language students and their attitudes towards it. Unpublished master’s thesis). Middle East University, Amman.
Fakhri Alamdari, E., & Hosnbakhshan, L. (2021). “The Dilemma of Metacognitive Intervention and EFL listening: Is L1 a Panacea in EFL Contexts?”. Interdisciplinary Studies in English Language Teaching, 1(1), 22-40.
Fooladvand, M. (2017). The effect of cognitive and metacognitive strategies in academic achievement: A systematic review. New Trends and Issues Proceedings on Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(1), 313-322.
Francis, J. (2017). The effects of technology on student motivation and engagement in classroom-based learning.
Ginaya, G., Rejeki, I. N. M., & Astuti, N. N. S. (2018). The effects of blended learning to students' speaking ability. International journal of linguistics, literature, and culture, 4(3), 1-14.
Guo, Lina (2020). "Teachers’ mediation in students’ development of cognition and metacognition." Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education: 28, 1-16.
Hernberg, Stacey (2020). "Metacognition and Language Learning: Creating Effective K–12 Learners." BC TEAL Journal 5.1: 109-122.
Hiver, P., Whiteside, Z., Sánchez Solarte, A. C., & Kim, C. J. (2021). “Language teacher metacognition: Beyond the mirror”. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 15(1), 52-65.
Husamah, H. (2014). Pembelajaran bauran (Blended learning). Research Report.
Jaleel, S. (2016). A Study on the Metacognitive Awareness of Secondary School Students. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 4(1), 165-172.
Khatib, M. (2011). A new approach to teaching English poetry to EFL students. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(1), 164-169.
Khodjakulova, N. (2021). “The Implementation of Online Metacognitive Strategies to develop English Essay and Letter Writing Skills”. Mental Enlightenment Scientific-Methodological Journal, 2021(1), 100-109.
Kim, HiJean & Yoon, MyoungNim. (2014). Adopting smartphone-based blended learning: An experimental study of the implementation of Kakao Talk and Mocafé. Multimedia-Assisted Language Learning, 17(2), 86-111.
KM Eshreteh, M., & Hisham Siaj, A. (2017). Attitudes of English-major students and teachers towards using blended learning in the English department at Hebron University. International Journal of Research in English Education, 2(4), 51-65.
Korniush, Hanna (2020). "Theoretical Evaluation of the Potential of Infographics as Powerful tools in English Language Teaching." Problems of Engineer-Pedagogical Education 65: 147-155.
Kowalczyk, N., & Truluck, C. (2013). “Literature reviews and systematic reviews: What is the difference?” Radiologic Technology, 85(2), 219–222.
Kummin, S. A., & Rahman, S. (2010). The relationship between the use of metacognitive strategies and achievement in English. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 7, 145-150.
Kupriyanov, Roman, et al (2021). "The Role of Metacognition and Critical Thinking for Engineering Students in EFL Learning." Educating Engineers for Future Industrial Revolutions: Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning (ICL2020), Volume 2 23. Springer International Publishing.
Liu, Q., Peng, W., Zhang, F., Hu, R., Li, Y., & Yan, W. (2016). The effectiveness of blended learning in health professions: systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of medical Internet research, 18(1), e4807.
Madhavi, V., Lakshmi, S. (2016). “Prezi as an Effective Tool to Teach Poetry-An Empirical Study” The Journal of English Language Teaching (India)58(4): 17-22.
Matukhin, D., & Zhitkova, E. (2015). Implementing blended learning technology in higher professional education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 206, 183-188.
McCutcheon, K., Lohan, M., Traynor, M., & Martin, D. (2015). A systematic review evaluating the impact of online or blended learning vs. face‐to‐face learning of clinical skills in undergraduate nurse education. Journal of advanced nursing, 71(2), 255-270.
Mısır, Hülya (2018). "Digital literacies and interactive multimedia-enhanced tools for language teaching and learning."
Naidu., Vikas, R, et al (2021). "Evaluation of Hypermedia Tools in Terms of Usability Heuristics for English Language Teaching." International Online Journal of Education and Teaching, 5(3), 514-523.
Perry, Fiona (2021). "The use of embedded digital tools to develop English language proficiency in higher education." Journal of Academic Language and Learning 15.1: 1-12.
Pradhan, Sradhanjali, and Parismita Das (2021). "Influence of Metacognition on Academic Achievement and Learning Style of Undergraduate Students in Tezpur University." European Journal of Educational Research 10 (1), 381-391.
Quvanch, Z., & Na, K. S. (2020). A Review on Impact of Blended Learning on the English Writing Skills. Innovative Teaching and Learning Journal (ITLJ), 4(1), 41-50.
Rasheed, R. A., Kamsin, A., & Abdullah, N. A. (2020). Challenges in the online component of blended learning: A systematic review. Computers & Education, 144, 103701.
Reinhardt, Jonathon (2020). "Metaphors for social media‐enhanced foreign language teaching and learning." Foreign Language Annals 53.2: 234-242.
Richards, J.C., Theodore, S.R. (1986). Approaches and methods in language teaching: Third Edition. Cambridge University Press. New York.25 Print: 2019
Rowe, M., Frantz, J., & Bozalek, V. (2012). The role of blended learning in the clinical education of healthcare students: a systematic review. Medical teacher, 34(4), e216-e221.
Shih, H. C. J., & Huang, S. H. C. (2018). “The development of EFL learners’ metacognition in a flipped classroom”. In Proceedings of the 8th Centre for Language Studies International Conference (pp. 263-279).
Son, Jeong‐Bae (2018). "Technology in English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching." The TESOL Encyclopedia of English language teaching: 10 (1), 1-7.
Symonenko, S. V., et al (2021). "Application of ICT tools in teaching American English for computer science students in the context of global challenges." Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Vol. 1840. No. 1. IOP Publishing, 381-391.
Ting, K. Y., & Chao, M. S. (2013). The application of self-regulated strategies to blended learning. English Language Teaching, 6(7), 26-32.
Uman, L.S. (2011). “Systematic reviews and meta-analyses”. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 20(1), 57–59.
Vallée, A., Blacher, J., Cariou, A., & Sorbets, E. (2020). Blended learning compared to traditional learning in medical education: systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of medical Internet research, 22(8), e16504.
Vk, Pushpa., & Savaedi, S. Y. (2014). Teaching poetry in autonomous ELT classes. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 1919-1925.
Wahyuni, S. (2018). The effect of blended learning model towards students’ writing ability. J-SHMIC: Journal of English for Academic, 5(2), 97-111.
Wang, Y., Han, X., & Yang, J. (2015). Revisiting the blended learning literature: Using a complex adaptive systems framework. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 18(2), 380-393.
Xerri, D. (2012). Poetry teaching and multimodality: Theory into practice. Creative Education, 3(04), 507-512.
Yang, Y. F. (2012). Blended learning for college students with English reading difficulties. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 25(5), 393-410.
Zhang, D., & Zhang, L. J. (2019). “Metacognition and self-regulated learning (SRL) in second/foreign language teaching”. Second handbook of English language teaching, Education, 883-897. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-585420_47-1